During the IELTS academic writing task 1, test takers will have to interpret information that is presented in a line graph, a bar chart, a pie chart, or a table, You will be tested on your ability to presented that information in a write a formal report of about 150 words.
This is part of the test is not really as difficult as it is often hyped up to be. Report writing is a technical skill, which requires a certain structure and the use of unique terminology. One of the main reasons students struggle to score well in this section is that they are unfamiliar with the type of vocabulary needed for academic report writing. Your use of vocabulary is one of the four criteria that the examiner will be assessing you on and it makes up 25 % of your writing band score.
In this article, you will learn all about the specific vocabulary needed for the academic writing task one and when to use it.
Vocabulary Band Descriptors
According to the writing vocabulary band descriptors, to score a band 8 a test taker must be able to:
- Use a wide range of vocabulary fluently and flexibly to convey precise meanings.
- Skillfully use uncommon lexical items with occasional inaccuracies in word choice and collocation
To put it simply, this means that to score well in this are you will have to use vocabulary specific to reporting data, as well as use a wider range of vocabulary and collocations you should also not repeat the same words again and again, meaning that you have to be able to paraphrase and use synonyms as well.
Vocabulary to Describe Data
When you analyse the graphical data presented to you in the question, you will have to report the main features as well as make comparisons between different sets of data. You have mention periods of stability, upward or downward trends or periods of instability (fluctuations in the graph or charts) To do this you need to have proper knowledge of which vocabulary to use for different types of changes. For example, if your graph depicts an upward trend, you would have to describe that change as sudden or gradual.
I’ve compiled an easy to understand table, that contains synonyms for commonly seen trends that appear in the academic writing task.
|Upward Trends||Downward Trends||Peak Values||Fluctuating Trends||Stable Trends||Upward trend + Stable Trend|
|a peak||a fluctuation
|a period of stability||a plateau
|to peak||to fluctuate
|to stabilize||to plateau|
|Phrases||to show an upward trend||to show a downward trend
to hit the lowest point
to hit a though
|to reach a peak||to show some fluctuation/ variation||to remain stable/
|to reach a plateau
to level off
to flatten out
You can always make the above-mentioned verbs and nouns sound more engaging by adding the correct adjective or adverb to go along with it. Remember that adjectives follow nouns and verbs are usually paired with adverbs.
|Adjectives and adverbs||sharp(ly)
|steady (ily)||relative(ly)||considerable (ably)||the second highest the third lowest||slight (ly)
There are also other instances when it is difficult to determine the exact figures mentioned in the graph. In such cases, you might have to use approximations instead.
Here are some useful approximations vocabulary: